For instance, the payment for goods or services with bitcoin is not covered by the case.
Therefore, it remains unclear how a supplier accepting bitcoin as a means of payment should determine the VAT liability (e.g. which exchange rate to use).
Also, the court indicates that non-traditional currency should not have any “other purpose than to be a means of payment”. In practice, it might not always be easy to make that distinction. Read more: ECJ issues ruling in Hedqvist: exchange service for bitcoin is VAT exempt | Oscar Smeets | LinkedIn